Carlisle occupies the border between England and Scotland, and was once dubbed the “Debatable Lands.” It is a town with a stormy past, having been sacked by the Vikings, pillaged by the Scots, and plundered by the Border Reivers. One of the main remnants of that past is Carlisle Castle, constructed between the 10th and 15 centuries, and the place where Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned. It was also the site of an 8-month siege during the English Civil War. Admission to the castle includes entry to the Kings Own Royal Border Regiment Museum, which explores the history of Cumbria’s Infantry Regiments. Carlisle’s main museum is the Tullie House Museum, which is a treat for history buffs and explores the foundation of the city, life under Roman rule, and the development of the modern city. The museum has an excellent archeology section.